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Technical Notes



Rapid Transit Industry


     Rapid transit railcars, including subway and commuter trains, generate electromagnetic disturbances that can affect the operation of the train-borne equipment as .well as wayside equipment. Under federal regulations, transit authorities need to ensure the railcar design meets emission and immunity limits for electromagnetic compatibility.


     Each equipment on the train should be designed to suppress the emission of electromagnetic disturbances and also be immune to EMI in its operation environment. To ensure EMC, equipment are subject to a set of EMC tests.


      With all equipment assembled on the train, a different set of train-level tests are to be performed to ensure EMC for operation and safety.


Electronic Industry


      Electrostatic discharges that we all experience, especially during winter time, are harmful to tiny transistors inside integrated circuits (IC). When ICs are "zapped" during manufacturing of circuit boards, they may not be totally damaged, but rather are knocked out of specification slightly and pass production test as "good boards". These boards, with latent damage, are continued used in higher and higher integration and could be the cause of pre-mature failure in field use.


     IC designers are required to include ESD protection circuits in their design, and product qualification tests should include testing against two types of ESD -- Human Body Model and Charged Device Model to ensure high degree of immunity to ESD "zaps".


     Effective control of ESD generation in manufacturing environment is critical to produce high quality electronic products. Weeding out latent damaged IC boards prevents pre-mature field failure and increases customer satisfaction.




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Aurora Consulting Engineering LLC

Phone: 908.369.3297